5 Easy to Forage Edible Spring Plants of the Northeast

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Amelanchier laevis
Amelanchier laevis (Photo by: Venessa Richins, About.com / Bugwood.org)

At Eat The Planet we love to teach people how foraging for wild edibles can be easy, safe, and rewarding. This article was written to get people out there and eating edible wild plants safely. There are 3 things that you need to be able to do first and this article is meant to make these steps as easy as possible:

1) Know how to correctly identify the plant you plan on finding.
2) Know where to look to find the plant.
3) Know how to correctly prepare the plant for consumption.

The EASY Way to Get Started

This article will teach you how to accurately and EASILY identify these 5 plants.  These plants have been chosen because they are very common in the Northeast in the spring, so finding them should be EASY and they require NO preparation before consumption, they can all be eaten raw and are generally good tasting.  Although this article focuses primarily on the Northeastern region of the United States, the information is here is valuable to people worldwide because these plants or their close relatives grow in temperate climates around the world.

A Few Ground Rules

Use all resources at your disposal to make sure that you have correctly identified any plant you plan on eating( Resources may include: local experts, books, etc). We are not responsible for any negative effects that you might experience from eating plants mentioned on this website.  There are a number of factors that are out of our control including allergies, pesticides, misidentification of plants, and your particular sensitivities to certain plants.  Always forage from a chemical free area.  Also don’t eat plants raw if you harvested them from water.  A good habit to get into after correctly identifying a plant you plan on eating is to try a small piece, then wait a day, then try more the next time. Your body may react differently than others. You can read our disclaimer by clicking here.  Lets get started…

 

1) Japanese Knotweed – Fallopia japonica/Polygonum cuspidatum

Japanese Knotweed is often called Japanese Bamboo because it looks like bamboo.  This plant sends up shoots during the spring, usually some time in April in the Northeast. It is extremely invasive so can be found locally almost anywhere in the Northeast.

Identification and Habitat

Japanese Knotweed
Japanese Knotweed Stalks(Photo By: Michael Gasperl /Wikimedia Commons)

As Mentioned above Japanese Knotweed looks like bamboo. it has visible nodes(dark ring around stalk) every 8″ or so. When it comes up in the spring it is usually part of a larger grove of Knotweed sending up many shoots of varying heights each about an inch in diameter, when summer approaches the maximum height will be somewhere around 6′-8′.  True Bamboo is also edible, but Japanese Knotweed tastes much better.  The primary way to distinguish Japanese Knotweed from Bamboo is it’s leaf shape. Japanese Knotweed has a wide leaf, the length is about twice the width. True Bamboo has very narrow leaves, the leaf length can be anywhere from 4-8 times the width. Japanese Knotweed is an invasive weed in many parts of the United States, to see a map of its range CLICK HERE.  It favors stream beds and moist soil. Take a 15 min ride around the nearest suburb and it’s likely that you will find this plant.

Edibility and Cautions

The stalk is the part most commonly eaten, it tastes similar to rhubarb.  After about a month or so the stalks start to dry out, get much harder, and become inedible, so eat as much as you’d like when they are soft and bendable in the spring.  There is a caution when consuming this plant, it contains oxalic acid which is also in spinach, broccoli, garlic, and many other common vegetables.  People who are trying to avoid oxalic acid should refrain from eating this plant.

To find out more about Japanese Knotweed CLICK HERE.

 

2) Violets(aka. Johnny Jump Ups) – Viola sororia

These are some of the first flowers to pop up in the spring. In the northeast you can usually find them in early April.

Identification and Habitat

Leaf Shape and growth pattern is on ID feature
Leaf Shape and growth pattern is one good ID feature

Violets are a small lawn weed. They range in color from white to blue to purple. They usually come up and flower before the grass really starts to take off so they are most visible when flowering in the spring.  The best way to spot Violets are to look for these small flowers scattered throughout a lawn. The flowers usually do not grow in a dense mound but are more likely to be sparsley spread throughout an area.  Once you have spotted the flowers take a closer look to confirm the identification.  Violet flowers are unique, they have 5 petals, two on on each side of the flower and one petal on the bottom center which is usually colored or shaped different than the others.  Pansies are in the violet genus and have the same flower shape, but are larger and easier to see.  CLICK HERE to see a picture of a Pansy flower up close.  Another identification feature is that Viola sororia has heart-shaped leaves that grow from a single bunch, they are typically lower than 4″ to the ground in spring but as they grow can reach to a height of 8″-10″. Violets stop flowering later in the year so keep an eye on where the plants are so you don’t need to try to re-identify them later. CLICK HERE to view the range of Viola sororia.

Edibility

The flowers and leaves are most commonly eaten raw.  Edible flowers like these make an amazing garnish for salads or any other food where presentation is important.  The leaves can be used as a lettuce substitute all year long, and may be more nutritional than some lettuces sold in stores. The leaves also contain mucilage which is considered to be a physically soothing substance especially for the throat.

To find out more about Violets CLICK HERE

 

3) Wild Garlic – Allium vineale

Also called crow garlic this is a naturalized wild garlic in the Northeast. This is not the same species as domestic garlic but it is similar.

Identification and Habitat

Allium vineale, Wild Garlic
Allium vineale, Wild Garlic

The best way to spot Wild Garlic is to look for their green tufts of foliage in early spring when many other herbaceous plants have not began to pop up.  This is one of the first plants to start growing in the spring, but by summer it can get lost in tall grass and be hard to find. CLICK HERE to view its range. The genus Allium includes all garlic, onions, chives and shallots. Visually these can be difficult to tell apart from grass and other similar looking plants some of which are toxic, but there is one very important and reliable identification feature. All plants in the genus Allium smell like garlic or onion, crush up the leaves or bulb and take a whiff. Wild garlic is quite fragrant, so if you have smelled a suspected plant and still have a doubt then do not consume that  plant.  If it does clearly smell like garlic/onion then you have found a plant in the genus Allium  and it is safe to consume.  One more feature to notice about wild garlic which will help distinguish it from wild onion and some other Alliums is that it has a hollow tubular stem.

Edibility

All parts of all Alliums are edible and they grow all over the world, so this is not only a good edible locally but in many places worldwide.  The bulb can be eaten like garlic, the leaves/stems can be eaten like chives. but there is one additional part to this species that is common. Bulbils are miniature bulbs that form at the top of the flower stalk in addition to or instead of flowers, this part of wild garlic is a great way to enjoy its flavor.  CLICK HERE for a picture of a wild garlic bulbil.

To learn more about Wild Garlic CLICK HERE

 

4) Bittercress – Cardamine pensylvanica

Despite the name Bittercress is not very bitter.  Bittercress is a small but very common plant in the mustard/Cabbage (brassicaceae) family.  It grows in every state in the United States except for Arizona and Hawaii. CLICK HERE to view its range.

Identification and Habitat

Bittercress
Bittercress, notice the small leaves and upright flower stalks

Bittercress is a lawn weed that is green early in the spring and late in the fall.  This is when it is easiest to spot.  It has some characteristics that make it relatively easy to identify. Look at the picture to the right, click on this image to zoom in.  Here is a list of some of the identifying features of this plant:

1) Circular to 3-lobed small leaves toward the base of the plant which are arranged in a very orderly row along the stem. narrower leaves toward the upper part of the flower stalk which are also arranged in an orderly row along the stem.

2) Leaves and stems come from a single point.

3) Flower stalks with small white flower clusters which turn into small elongated seed pods later in the year.

The best way to identify a plant like this is once you think you have found it, pull it up by the roots and bring it inside to compare to this picture or other pictures from credible sources. There is some misidentification from certain sources online so make sure you look at more than one.

Edibility

You’ve probably noticed by now that this plant is not massive. It is quite small, but what makes this a good edible is the numbers in which it grows. Once you have correctly identified one plant, look around there should be many more nearby.  All parts of the plant are edible but the roots are not commonly eaten.  This is a good plant to eat right on the spot as well as to collect and take back home, it is a great addition to salads, vegetable mixes or as a watercress substitute.

To learn more about Bittercress CLICK HERE

 

5) Service Berry – Genus: Amelanchier

There are a number of Serviceberries that are common in the Northeast including Amelanchier canadensis, Amelanchier laevis, Amelanchier arborea as well as hybrids of these and others. They all look similar, have edible berries, and are called Service Berry or June Berry.  Ripening in June this is one of the first fruits in the year that are ripe enough to pick.

Identification and Habitat

Amelanchier laevis
Amelanchier laevis (Photo by: Venessa Richins, About.com / Bugwood.org)

This plant will be slightly harder for beginners to identify, but there is a loophole. Service berry is a common landscape  plant, if you want to see this plant in person head to the nearest garden center or plant nursery and ask if they have Service berry, also called Juneberry or Amelanchier. While looking at the plant or this photo(click to enlarge) you will notice a few things:

1) The berries look like blueberries but are redder, Amelanchier berries can be red, blue or purple.

2) Notice the leaf shape, this shape is common for Amelanchier species, and the leaves have small serrated edges.

3) CLICK HERE to see a picture of the smooth silvery bark which is common for Amelanchier Species.

4) There is one more important identification feature which can be noticed in the fall and it is the long pointed buds of Amelancher species.

As mentioned above this is a common landscape plant especially for parks and native plantings, so that is a good place to start looking.  It is also a native forest tree/shrub but it is much easier to find in cultivated landscapes.  It can grow in medium shade and doesn’t get very tall. The maximum height is 5′-20′. There is a fungus that effects the leaves and fruit when planted near Juniper trees, this makes the fruit inedible but may help in identifying the plant.

Edibility

The berries are the only edible part of the plant and they are delicious. They taste similar to blueberries but have their own unique taste.  You can eat them raw by the handfull, plants sometimes produce so many berries that the branches bend down from the weight.

To learn more about Serviceberry CLICK HERE

Help Spread the Word

Please Share this article with your friends and family to help spread the knowledge of wild edible plants.  Including wild edibles in our diets and eating with extreme diversity is better for our health and our planet. If you have any questions or comments then comment below or send a message to our facebook page which can be found by CLICKING HERE.

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Multiflora Rose, An Invasive But Nutritious Wild Edible

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Rosa multiflora
Multiflora Rose, typical growth habit with flowers
(Photo By: Quert1234 / Wikimedia Commons)

Roses are one of the most popular plants known to mankind.  Their history as a cultivated plant goes back at least 5000 years.  The Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora), also known as Japanese Rose is a native Asian rose that has become invasive in many parts of the United States and Canada.  The edibility and medicinal uses of other species of roses is similar and some are even superior to Multiflora Rose, but Multiflora Rose is the most prolific in North America due to  its invasive tendencies.

Edibility and Culinary Use

Roses have edible berries called rose hips. Multiflora Rose hips are small but plentiful. I commonly eat them raw but making a hot or cold tea out of rose hips is a popular way to enjoy their unique flavor. To make the tea, mash the rose hips and steep them in hot water.

Rosa multiflora
Multiflora Rose berries, also known as rose hips.

The best time to harvest Rose hips is after the first frost because they become soft and sweet. If they are not soft and sweet at that point it is recommended to keep them on the plant until they are.  Depending on the weather, Multifora Rose hips may last until late winter before they begin to get rotten( colder weather seems to preserve them longer).  The seeds are edible and perfectly fine to steep in tea, but some people also grind them up and add them to foods for their nutritional content.  Rose leaves and flower petals are also edible. They can both be eaten raw, the leaves should be harvested when young, before they develop thorns on the underside.  I eat a lot of Multiflora Rose leaves throughout the year, even into winter, I have noticed that I can find young thorn-less leaves all year except for late winter.

Health Benefits

Rosa multiflora
Multiflora Rose, young edible leaves (Photo By: AnRo0002 / Wikimedia Commons)

Roses have nutritional benefits that most people are not aware of. Rose hips and leaves are very rich in vitamin C, and the hips are also rich in carotene and a good source of essential fatty acids.  The seeds are a good source of vitamin E and are often ground up and added to foods as a nutritional supplement.  Roses are being studied as a food that may reduce instances of cancer, and possibly assist in improving cases of cancer.

Key ID Features

Multiflora Rose often grows in a mass of thorny viney stalks. It is commonly seen growing adjacent to other prickery vines and shrubs such as Greenbrier, Raspberry, and Japanese Barberry so knowing that Roses have thorns will not always help you to identify them.  On the other hand the shape of the thorns will help you to properly identify Multiflora Rose. The thorns are relatively large and curved, the base of the thorn is a perfect elongated oval.  You can break off a thorn and see the perfect oval scar left on the stem. The thorns grow directly on the stems and are located 2″-5″ apart growing on any side of the stem.  The easier way to identify Multiflora Rose is by its multitude of small white roses, but they are only present during the summer.

Cautions

Rosa multiflora
Multiflora Rose, notice the curved thorns,elongated oval thorn base, and spacing of thorns.

THORNS! They are sharp! The other thing to watch out for is that there are stiff irritating hairs inside the fruit protecting the seeds. They are usually not a problem in tea, but if you eat the rose hips raw you might experience some irritation.

Conclusion

If we have to deal with Multiflora Rose as a problematic invasive species, then the least we can do is get something out of it.  Like many other invasive species such as Japanese Knotweed and Autumn Olive, this plant also offers us some nutrition and variety to our diets.  The vitamin C content alone is enough to persuade us to add Multiflora Rose to our diet.  The unique flavor of rose hip tea is a conversation starter and may help more people to learn to appreciate nature and its extreme diversity of wild edibles.

Many of our readers find that subscribing to Eat The Planet is the best way to make sure they don't miss any of our valuable information about wild edibles.

Subscribe to our mailing list

our facebook page for additional articles and updates.

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Eastern White Pine, An Effective Remedy For The Common Cold

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Pinus Strobus
Pinus Strobus Eastern White Pine, mature habit and size

Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) is a common native forest and landscape tree in the eastern half of the United States.  The Pines (Genus: Pinus) are a prolific genus of trees and shrubs including slightly more than 100 species.  This particular species is a long lived tree, some exceptional specimens have been estimated to be almost 500 years old. Although it is commonly planted as a landscape tree, Eastern White Pine grows very tall, often approaching 100′, some specimens have been measured to be over 150′.  The edibility of Eastern White Pine is unknown by most. Many people are surprised to know how important it was to the Native American diet.  Much of this information is also true of some other pine species but Eastern White Pine is a plant with well documented edible and medicinal uses.

Edibility and Culinary Use

Pinus Strobus Eastern White Pine
Pinus Strobus Eastern White Pine, needles and mature cone (Photo By: Keith Kanoti, Maine Forest Service, USA)

I refer to Eastern White Pine as a hidden wild edible because it is so large and common, but its edible components are not.  It has no berries, or tubers, or large leaves, so why is it such and important edible plant?  Because it gives foragers something to harvest in the winter.  The needles are edible and most commonly used to make a hot tea. The nutritional and medicinal properties of the needles are best preserved by steeping the needles in hot water instead of boiling them, you can steep for as little as 15 mins or a long as a few days. The tea has a surprisingly good flavor, it is bitter, resinous, and slightly sweet but most people end up adding additional sweetener.  Eastern White Pine also contains edible inner bark, as unpleasant as this sounds a number of Native American tribes ate this inner bark throughout the winter to prevent starvation.  In fact all parts of the tree are non-toxic.  Native Americans were creative in their use of white pine, eating any parts of the tree that they could prepare to be palatable including young green pine cones.  I enjoy chewing on the new growth in the spring, it is not too resinous, and it is soft enough to chew. Some species of pine have nuts inside the mature cones that are large enough to eat. Eastern White pine has very small nuts, they can be eaten, but usually are too much effort to collect.

Health Benefits

The really surprising thing about Eastern White Pine is its vitamin C content. It has 5 times the vitamin C content of lemons (by weight). That’s one of the primary reasons it’s so important in the Native American diet.  It also contains vitamin A and resveratrol which may have some anti-aging properties.  White pine can be an effective medicinal plant acting especially well on the respiratory system to sooth and clear phlegm.  It’s no coincidence that this is an abundantly available wild medicinal plant during cold and flu season, and an effective Native American remedy for coughs and congestion.  The reason you don’t boil the needle tea is because the vitamin C is sensitive to heat and may break down into other components. It is a good idea to boil the water and pour it on top of the needles.

Key ID Features

Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda, Loblolly Pine has 3 needles in a fascicle. Notice the small fascicle sheath at the base of the needles. White pine needle clusters look almost identical but have 5 needles in a fascicle – not shown. click to enlarge (Photo By: JMK / Wikimedia Commons)

Way too often the word “pine” is used to refer to all needled evergreen trees or all conifers.  The fact is that pines are a certain genus and are distinctly different from spruce, fir, hemlock and other evergreens.  Pines are rather easy to identify once you know what to look for.  First of all, all pines are conifers, meaning that they produce cones, but not all conifers are pines. Spruce, fir and others are also conifers. Eastern White Pine cones are very visible throughout the growing season but primarily in the fall.  The primary way to tell pine trees apart from other conifers is that their needles grow in fascicles. A fascicle is a sheath at the base of a group of needles.  Pine needles grow in groups of 2-5 needles bundled in a fascicle at the base.  Most other species of conifers have single needles that grow directly from the stem. Eastern White Pine has 5 needles to a fascicle and they are about 3″ long. There are other much less common pine trees that have 5 needles to a fascicle but if you’ve found a tree like this then chances are it is an Eastern white pine, but if not then at least you know it is a pine.

Cautions

There is one caution when consuming Eastern White Pine.  The resin could cause dermatitis in some people.  The resin is in every part of the plant so use in small quantities at first.

Conclusion

Eastern White Pine is a plant that I thought I was familiar with for most of my life.  When I found out about its edible and medicinal properties I started viewing the plant as a much more versatile wild edible.  I often wondered how Native Americans got their vitamin C. Many people believe vitamin C primarily comes from citrus fruits, and most Native Americans did not have citrus fruit. I was also amazed by the fact that this is such a good remedy for cold and flu symptoms and it happens to be abundant in cold and flu season when many other wild edible are not.  So if you’re looking for something to forage this winter an Eastern White Pine tree is probably not far away.

Many of our readers find that subscribing to Eat The Planet is the best way to make sure they don't miss any of our valuable information about wild edibles.

Subscribe to our mailing list

our facebook page for additional articles and updates.

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Bittercress
Bittercress, a Nationwide Herb
Read more.
Early Humans
What Is Your Ancestral Diet?
Read more.
Fried Grasshopper
Grasshoppers and Locust, A Delicious Swarm Of Protein
Read more.
Chicken of the Woods recipe
Chicken Of The Woods, An Easy To ID Meat Substitute
Read more.
Rose of Sharon Flower
Rose of Sharon Tree, A Beautiful Edible
Read more.
Japanese Knotweed
Japanese Knotweed, Invasive In The US, So Eat As Much As You’d Like
Read more.